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Color Vision: Trichromatic and Opponent Process Theories (Intro Psych Tutorial #46)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I discuss how color vision occurs and explain two important theories for understanding color vision, Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory and Opponent Process Theory. Along the way I describe how some people are able to see ultraviolet (UV) light, a trick you can use to see infrared light, and two demonstrations of color afterimages. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Cone Type Sensitivity Graph: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/imgvis/colcon.gif Electromagnetic Spectrum Illustration from NASA (public domain): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum#/media/File:EM_Spectrum_Properties_edit.svg Flag color afterimage (public domain): http://open.lib.umn.edu/intropsyc/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/01/67a9a926daa610a2f90ab5d508770678.jpg Negative Color Afterimage from: http://www.opticalspy.com/opticals/negative-girl Sorry for skipping the second H when writing Helmholtz! Enable closed captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/color-vision-trichromatic-and-opponent-process-theories/
Views: 7904 PsychExamReview
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - MMPI (Intro Psych Tutorial #136)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I briefly describe the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory or MMPI, which consists of 338 statements to which subjects respond True or False. I also describe criterion keying, which is a technique for finding patterns of responses for groups of people who are already known to differ in some way, such as already having been diagnosed with a particular mental disorder. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my book, Master Introductory Psychology, an alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 5156 PsychExamReview
Short-Term Memory and Working Memory (Intro Psych Tutorial #72)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I cover the second box in the 3-box model, short-term memory, in greater detail. I explain the limited capacity of this store, George Miller's “Magical Number 7”, and how organizational encoding and chunking may appear to expand this capacity without necessarily increasing the number of “items” being held. This concept of organizing and manipulating information in this store brings us to Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch's model of working memory. This model includes 4 main parts; a central executive, the visuospatial sketchpad, the phonological loop, and the episodic buffer (added later). This working memory model accounts for our ability to manipulate incoming information and also draw upon existing long-term memory. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s George Miller – The Magical Number 7 Plus or Minus 2 http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Miller/
Views: 5074 PsychExamReview
The Premack Principle (Intro Psych Tutorial #65)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe the Premack Principle which refers to the idea that behaviors can be high or low probability which in turn means that high probability behaviors can serve as reinforcement for low probability behaviors. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/the-premack-principle/
Views: 1962 PsychExamReview
Latent Learning & Cognitive Maps (Intro Psych Tutorial #68)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I explain the concept of latent learning using two studies conducted by Edward Tolman and colleagues. Latent learning refers to learning that occurs without reinforcement and isn't demonstrated until an opportunity arises. I also describe the idea of a cognitive map and how it supports the existence of internal mental representations. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Edward Tolman – Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Tolman/Maps/maps.htm Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/latent-learning-cognitive-maps/
Views: 4972 PsychExamReview
The Rescorla-Wagner Model (Intro Psych Tutorial #66)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I explain the basic idea behind the Rescorla-Wagner model or contingency model of classical conditioning proposed by Robert Rescorla and Allan Wagner. This model suggests that the reason Pavlov's dogs associated the bell (rather than some other stimulus) with food was that it was salient and served as a reliable predictor of food. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/the-rescorla-wagner-model/
Views: 8155 PsychExamReview
Language Acquisition - Skinner vs. Chomsky (Intro Psych Tutorial #82)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I introduce language acquisition as a type of learning that isn't explained well by the behaviorist principles we saw in the unit on learning theory. In the next few videos we'll be looking at linguistics and language acquisition in more detail and then considering how language relates to thought. We begin with Noam Chomsky's review of B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, which revealed the limits of the behaviorist approach. Next I introduce Chomsky's idea of a Language Acquisition Device that enables humans to learn language almost automatically when exposed to it. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior: http://cogprints.org/1148/1/chomsky.htm
Views: 4137 PsychExamReview
Influence on Neurotransmitter: Agonist or Antagonist? (Intro Psych Tutorial #28)
 
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In this video I discuss some ways that drugs can influence the functioning of neurotransmitters by binding to receptors on postsynaptic neurons. I explain the difference between agonist drugs which increase effects of a neurotransmitter and antagonist drugs which reduce the effects of the neurotransmitter. I explain how nicotine acts as an agonist for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and how neuroadaptation relates to addiction. Next I explain how caffeine acts an an antagonist for the neurotransmitter adenosine and how this relates to the familiar "crash" that people experience after using caffeine. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/drugs-and-neurotransmitters-agonist-or-antagonist/
Views: 2692 PsychExamReview
Structuralism and Functionalism (Intro Psych Tutorial #5)
 
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In this video I describe two early approaches to psychology; the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt and the functionalism of William James. Need more explanation? Get my full psychology guide here: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Video transcript: Hi, I'm Michael Corayer and this is Psych Exam Review where I answer common questions and explain the key concepts in psychology. In this video I'm going to talk about some early approaches to psychology. We're going to start with a guy named Wilhelm Wundt and Wundt lived from 1832 to 1920, here's a picture of him here and he's generally credited with starting the world's first experimental psychology lab at the University of Leipzig. Now Wundt was a structuralist and structuralism was an approach to psychology that involved trying to break consciousness down, to try to break it into manageable parts that could be studied. And the idea was if you could understand all parts or the structure of consciousness then you would have a better understanding of consciousness itself. The way that structuralists did this, one technique that they used, was known as introspection. Introspection involved participants coming into the lab and reporting their experience. So you might go into a structuralist lab and they'd show you some stimulus and they might ask what is it like to see this red circle, how do you describe this experience? And the problem with this approach, as you might guess, is that it's too subjective so it might be interesting to hear what it's like for you to see this red circle but if I ask 100 people I'm probably going to end up with 100 different answers and this is gonna make it very difficult to analyze the data in any sort of meaningful way. So structuralism kind of faded and another view around the same time supported by William James, an American psychologist you can see here who lived from 1842 to 1910. William James supported the idea that we have traits and abilities, but rather than try to understand the experience of these traits and abilities we should remember that they serve a purpose, and this approach was known as functionalism. So rather than asking what is it like to see a red circle, a functionalist approach would say why do we see red? What purpose does color vision serve, how does it help in some way? And James thought that would help us to understand consciousness more than trying to break it down into pieces which he thought couldn't really be done. And as you might guess James was heavily influenced by the ideas of Charles Darwin who had published On the Origin of Species in 1859 which gave his view of how natural selection occurred. So while there's not really any functionalist psychologists today, this general approach of looking for the purpose of traits and behaviors continues in the form of evolutionary psychology. That's structuralism and functionalism, if you found this helpful please like the video and subscribe to the channel for more. Thanks for watching!
Views: 3525 PsychExamReview
Split Brains: What Happens When You Sever the Corpus Callosum? (Intro Psych Tutorial #36)
 
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In this video I cover research by Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga on split brain patients who have had the corpus callosum severed. I explain some hemispheric specializations such as speech production and facial recognition as well as how visual information is separated into each hemisphere at the optic chiasm according to visual field. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Severed Corpus Callosum from Scientific American Frontiers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGwsAdS9Dc Split Brain Behavioral Experiments https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZMLzP1VCANo Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/split-brains-what-happens-when-you-sever-the-corpus-callosum/
Views: 11610 PsychExamReview
Learning Theory & Classical Conditioning (Intro Psych Tutorial #59)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I introduce learning theory and the basic concepts of behaviorism. This begins with the work of Ivan Pavlov on classical conditioning and covers the basic vocabulary for discussing this type of learning including neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 2018 PsychExamReview
Long-Term Memory (Intro Psych Tutorial #73)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I cover the final box in the 3-box model of memory, long-term memory. Long-term memory is generally considered to have an unlimited capacity and thus is never "full". I explain different types of long-term memory which can be broadly divided into explicit (or declarative) memory and implicit (or non-declarative) memory. These can then be further divided into semantic memory and episodic memory (both explicit) and procedural memory (implicit). I end by considering the simplifications involved in creating memory models and the importance of reminding ourselves just how complex memory processing really is. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 2194 PsychExamReview
The Interactionist Approach to Language Acquisition (Intro Psych Tutorial #86)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe the interactionist approach to language acquisition. This approach recognizes our genetic predisposition for language and considers how the social environment plays a role in that development. Children are learning more than just vocabulary and syntactical rules and their ability to interact and communicate using language is supported by the adults and other children around them, which Jerome Bruner referred to as the Language Acquisition Support System (LASS). I also explain how the social environment played a fundamental role in the emergence of a new sign language in Nicaragua in the 1980s. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 2017 PsychExamReview
Problem-Solving: Algorithms vs. Heuristics (Intro Psych Tutorial #91)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I explain the difference between an algorithm and a heuristic and provide an example demonstrating why we tend to use heuristics when solving problems. While algorithms provide step-by-step procedures that can guarantee solutions, heuristics are faster and provide shortcuts for getting to solutions, though this has the potential to cause errors. In the next few videos we'll see examples of heuristics that we tend to use and the potential decision-making errors that they can cause. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 2519 PsychExamReview
Extinction, Generalization, & Discrimination (Intro Psych Tutorial #60)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I explain some other terminology for describing aspects of classical conditioning including acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, stimulus discrimination, and second-order or higher-order conditioning. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/extinction-generalization-and-discrimination/
Views: 3506 PsychExamReview
Psychophysics! (Intro Psych Tutorial #41)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I introduce psychophysics and explain the difference between the absolute threshold and the difference threshold (or just noticeable difference). I also discuss the difficulties of measuring our sensitivity to stimulation and provide a simple demonstration of Weber's Law, which is that the difference threshold relates to proportions of change rather than amounts of change. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/psychophysics-video/
Views: 1111 PsychExamReview
Signal Detection Theory (Intro Psych Tutorial #42)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I explain how signal detection theory relates to psychophysics and the study of absolute and difference thresholds. I also explain how response criteria play a role in signal detection theory and the possibility of type I and type II errors. Finally, I consider applications of signal detection theory in daily life, from detecting dangers to dating. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/signal-detection-theory-video/
Views: 2609 PsychExamReview
Photoreceptors, Receptive Fields, and Lateral Inhibition (Intro Psych Tutorial #45)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I go into more detail on the retina, describing the two main types of photoreceptors (rods and cones) and how they operate in different levels of light. Next I describe the composition of receptive fields and how retinal ganglion cells communicate differing patterns of light on the receptive fields. Finally I explain lateral inhibition and how it relates to the illusion caused by Mach Bands, which demonstrates that we don't actually see the "real" levels of light in the world but rather an exaggerated version which emphasizes contrast. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/photoreceptors-receptive-fields-and-lateral-inhibition/
Views: 2344 PsychExamReview
Parts of the Brain: Hindbrain Structures (Intro Psych Tutorial #32)
 
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In this video I explain the main regions of the brain: the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain, as well as the difference between the "old" and "new" brain in evolutionary terms. Then the location and function of four main areas of the hindbrain (medulla, reticular formation, cerebellum, and pons) are explained. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/parts-of-the-brain-hindbrain-structures/
Views: 1279 PsychExamReview
Perceptual Constancy (Intro Psych Tutorial #56)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe perceptual constancy, which refers to the idea that we perceive a relatively stable and unchanging world despite the fact that sensory information is changing dramatically. I explain how this applies visually to size, brightness, and shape. We often forget this learning process because it occurred during infancy, but it is demonstrated clearly in previously blind individuals who must slowly learn how to see following eye surgery. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s An Anthropologist on Mars – Oliver Sacks: http://amzn.to/2mjlibz Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/perceptual-constancy/
Views: 1216 PsychExamReview
Sensory Memory (Intro Psych Tutorial #71)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I cover the first box in the 3-box model, sensory memory, in greater detail. I explain how this store refers to information from all of the senses, though individual senses can be specified using terms like iconic memory or echoic memory. I also describe how the brief duration of sensory memory relates to managing the constant flow of information from the senses. This also relates to the myth that the mind has some sort of detailed record of all of our experiences. Next I explain George Sperling's work demonstrating the duration of sensory memory and how this relates to the role of selective attention in organizing our perceptions and moving information to the next box in our memory model, which is short-term memory. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/the-sensory-memory-store/
Views: 2325 PsychExamReview
What Happens to Neurotransmitters After Release? (Intro Psych Tutorial #26)
 
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In this video I explain what else can happen to a neurotransmitter after release (besides binding to a receptor on the postsynaptic neuron). These include reuptake, enzyme deactivation, and autoreception, and I provide mnemonics for remembering each of these processes. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/what-happens-to-neurotransmitters-after-release/
Views: 1594 PsychExamReview
Chaining, Shaping, & Instinctive Drift (Intro Psych Tutorial #64)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe the how conditioning to be used to train more complex behaviors. This can be accomplished with chaining, which involves linking together previously conditioned behaviors, and shaping, which involves reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior. Next I provide examples of behaviors which cannot be conditioned due to biological constraints on learning described by Keller and Marian Breland. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Chicken Obstacle Course https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-nI27Zwi9VU B.F. Skinner Foundation – Pigeon Ping Pong https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGazyH6fQQ4 Rat Basketball at Wofford College https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAQSEO25fa4 Marian & Keller Breland – The Misbehavior of Organisms http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Breland/misbehavior.htm Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/chaining-shaping-instinctive-drift/
Views: 2311 PsychExamReview
Nature versus Nurture (Intro Psych Tutorial #2)
 
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In this video I describe the concepts of nativism and philosophical empiricism as well as modern views of the "nature vs. nature debate". Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Get my full psychology guide here: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/nature-versus-nurture/
Views: 1188 PsychExamReview
Operant Conditioning: Behavior & Consequences (Intro Psych Tutorial #62)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I explain the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Next I explain Thorndike's work with cats in puzzle boxes which led to his Law of Effect. This approach was greatly expanded by B.F. Skinner's work on operant conditioning which distinguished primary and secondary reinforcers, as well as positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Skinner photo from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._F._Skinner#/media/File:B.F._Skinner_at_Harvard_circa_1950.jpg Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/operant-conditioning-2/
Views: 1263 PsychExamReview
Introduction to Memory (Intro Psych Tutorial #70)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I begin the memory unit by introducing a few key terms (encoding, storage, and retrieval), explaining why it's important not to extend the "mind as computer" analogy too far, and briefly outlining the 3-Box model of memory first proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin, which includes stores for sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/introduction-to-memory/
Views: 892 PsychExamReview
Gestalt Laws of Perception (Intro Psych Tutorial #55)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I focus on perception and how we make sense of the information coming in from our senses. Gestalt laws refer to general principles for organizing and interpreting sensory information. I provide visual examples for several gestalt laws including closure, proximity, similarity, continuity, simplicity, and common fate and suggest some possible ways of applying these laws to other senses. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/gestalt-laws-of-perception/
Views: 1247 PsychExamReview
Frequency Distributions, Normal Curves, and Skew (Intro Psych Tutorial #18)
 
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In this video I explain how a frequency distribution can create a visual representation of our data. I also describe a normal curve or "bell curve" and what it means for mean, median, and mode. Then I consider skewed distributions with positive or negative skew. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/frequency-distributions-normal-curves-and-skew/
Views: 1428 PsychExamReview
Observational Learning: Bandura's Bobo Doll Study (Intro Psych Tutorial #67)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I explain Albert Bandura's famous “Bobo Doll” study on observational learning and aggressive behavior. In this study, adults modeled aggressive playing behaviors with a Bobo doll which were then performed by children who had simply observed the behaviors, revealing how observation can influence behavior. In later versions of the study, Bandura also demonstrated that the children's behavior was influence by observation of the adult being rewarded or punished, which he referred to as vicarious reinforcement. Since the learning that occurs during observation isn't directly observable at the time, this implies that it involves internal cognitive processes. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-cost alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Footage from the study with Bandura narrating: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pr0OTCVtHbU Get your own Bobo doll here! http://amzn.to/2m4tewG Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/observational-learning-banduras-bobo-doll-study/
Views: 1146 PsychExamReview
Depth Perception (Intro Psych Tutorial #57)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe the many cues that we use to perceive depth and experience a 3D world based on the 2D information from our retinas. These include monocular cues (linear perspective, relative size, texture gradient, interposition, and shading), motion-based cues (motion parallax and optic flow) and binocular cues (disparity and convergence). Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s For more explanation on 3D movies, check out my blog post here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/how-do-3d-movies-work/ Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/depth-perception/
Views: 2344 PsychExamReview
Dualism and Monism (Intro Psych Tutorial #3)
 
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In this video I discuss dualism, Descartes, monism, and Hermann von Helmholtz to consider why we can't trust our intuitions about the world. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Get my full psychology guide here: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/dualism-and-monism/
Views: 2495 PsychExamReview
History of Intelligence Testing (Intro Psych Tutorial #117)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I briefly describe the history of intelligence testing including the work of Sir Francis Galton, Alfred Binet, Theodore Simon, William Stern, Lewis Terman, and David Wechsler. I also discuss the concepts of mental age, ratio IQ, deviation IQ, and the ability of childhood IQ to predict future outcomes. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my book, Master Introductory Psychology, an alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 1512 PsychExamReview
Case Studies and the Survey Method (Intro Psych Tutorial #10)
 
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In this video I explain case studies and the survey method, providing explanations of the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, such as applicability, issues with framing, and reporting bias. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/case-studies-and-the-survey-method/
Views: 889 PsychExamReview
Understanding Colorblindness (Intro Psych Tutorial #47)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I explain different types of colorblindness and what can cause people to have difficulty differentiating colors, either from the lack of a cone type (-anopia) or if the sensitivity of a cone type has been shifted (-anamoly). I also explain how red-green colorblindness is a sex-linked trait because it is located on the X chromosome. I briefly describe how EnChroma glasses can help some people with red-green colorblindness to discriminate similar colors and how colorblindness tests and simulations can help those with normal color vision understand how a colorblind individual perceives the world. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Cone Type Sensitivity Graph: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/imgvis/colcon.gif Ishihara Colorblind Test Plate Examples: http://www.colour-blindness.com/colour-blindness-tests/ishihara-colour-test-plates/ Colorblindness Photo Simulation: http://www.color-blindness.com/coblis-color-blindness-simulator/ Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/understanding-colorblindness/
Views: 1282 PsychExamReview
Difference between a Theory and a Hypothesis (Intro Psych Tutorial #16)
 
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In this video I describe the difference between a theory and a hypothesis. I also explain how evidence can support or refute a hypothesis but can never prove a theory. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/difference-between-a-theory-and-a-hypothesis/
Views: 855 PsychExamReview
The Framing Effect (Intro Psych Tutorial #94)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I introduce Tversky and Kahneman's work on the framing effect and how consideration of benefits or losses can influence the choices that people make and their willingness to take risks. I consider a few everyday examples of this, then consider how the framing of default options may also influences the choices we make, as demonstrated in Eric Johnson and Daniel Goldstein's work looking at opt-in and opt-out organ donation programs in different countries. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Daniel Kahneman - Thinking, Fast and Slow (Amazon) http://amzn.to/2nAWnop
Views: 947 PsychExamReview
Brain Scanning and Imaging Techniques (Intro Psych Tutorial #31)
 
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In this video I briefly explain how information can be collected about the structure and function of a living brain using scanning and imaging techniques including EEG, CAT scan, PET scan, MRI, fMRI, and DTI. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/brain-scanning-and-imaging-techniques/
Views: 2591 PsychExamReview
The Representativeness Heuristic (Intro Psych Tutorial #93)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe another heuristic identified by the work of Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. The representativeness heuristic is a shortcut that we use when attempting to estimate the odds of something being true, such as whether an interview profile came from a lawyer or an engineer. Rather than using relevant base rate information, participants showed a tendency to rely on prototypes when making this decision. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Daniel Kahneman - Thinking, Fast and Slow (Amazon) http://amzn.to/2nAWnop
Views: 702 PsychExamReview
Culture and Perception (Intro Psych Tutorial #58)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I consider the role of culture on perception. The fact that we must learn how to perceive the world creates the possibility that our culture can shape our perception. I provide one example of this, known as the carpentered-world hypothesis, which can used to explain susceptibility to the Müller-Lyer illusion. The carpentered-world hypothesis suggests that cultural experience with parallel lines and right angles increases susceptibility to the illusion by shaping the assumptions that a person makes when viewing the lines. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/culture-and-perception/
Views: 1368 PsychExamReview
Freud's Psychosexual Stages (Intro Psych Tutorial #130)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe Freud's psychosexual stages of personality development. Each of the stages has a focus of pleasure and a conflict which needs to be resolved. Failure to properly resolve a conflict could result in a fixation, which could then cause anxiety later in life. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my book, Master Introductory Psychology, an alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 1016 PsychExamReview
Observer Bias: Clever Horses and Dull Rats (Intro Psych Tutorial #8)
 
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In this video I explain two well-known examples of observer bias: the case of Clever Hans, and Rosenthal and Fode's experiment with "bright" and "dull" rats. Observer bias (or experimenter expectancy effect) is considered, along with an explanation for how to reduce this bias. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/observer-bias-clever-horses-and-dull-rats/
Views: 905 PsychExamReview
What is Heritability? (Intro Psych Tutorial #38)
 
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In this video I provide a basic introduction to twin studies and heritability scores. I explain how a heritability score tells us about the role of genes in explaining variance in a trait. I also discuss some common errors and emphasize that heritability is about the role of genes in general, not about specific genes, and that it only tells us about groups of people, not individuals. I also discuss some hypothetical examples that illustrate how differences in environments can influence heritability scores. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/what-is-heritability/
Views: 1539 PsychExamReview
Dreaming: Freud, Activation-Synthesis, & Information Processing (Intro Psych Tutorial #107)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe three approaches for thinking about dreaming; a Freudian perspective, the activation-synthesis model, and information-processing theory. Freud emphasized the role of the unconscious and believed that dreams could be divided into manifest content and latent content, while Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley's later activation-synthesis model viewed dreams as the result of random brain activation during sleep. An information-processing approach to understanding dreaming views REM (and dreaming) as a process for memory consolidation and integration, perhaps explaining why we frequently have dreams related to problems we're working on and why sleep can actually help us to improve on recently learned tasks. We also see common themes in dreams which may relate to problems that we may all face, such as dealing with death, aging, embarrassment, or escaping a predator. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Robert Stickgold's TEDx talk on Sleep, Memory, & Dreams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmRGNunPj3c
Views: 1669 PsychExamReview
Humanistic Psychology - Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers (Intro Psych Tutorial #144)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I provide a short introduction to the ideas of humanistic psychologists Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Maslow and Rogers both emphasized the role of an intrinsic drive towards self-actualization, or fulfilling one's greatest potential, in shaping an individual. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my book, Master Introductory Psychology, an alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 685 PsychExamReview
What is an Emotion? (Intro Psych Tutorial #148)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I introduce the concept of multidimensional scaling to investigate emotions more objectively. This approach involves considering emotional experiences on two dimensions; valence and level of physiological arousal. Valence refers to how strongly an emotion is experienced as positive or negative, and physiological arousal refers to markers such as heart rate, respiration, and sweat response. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my book, Master Introductory Psychology, an alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 576 PsychExamReview
Masters & Johnson's Human Sexual Response Cycle (Intro Psych Tutorial #165)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I briefly describe the work of William Masters and Virginia Johnson in identifying 4 distinct phases of the human sexual response cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Like these videos? Consider supporting Psych Exam Review on Patreon: www.patreon.com/PsychExamReview Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 447 PsychExamReview
Memory Failures: Transience, Absentmindedness, & Blocking (Intro Psych Tutorial #74)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I introduce 3 common memory failures from Daniel Schacter's list of the "seven sins" of memory. Transience refers to forgetting due to the passage of time and follows a "forgetting curve" researched by Hermann Ebbinghaus. Absentmindedness refers to a failure to bring a memory to mind at the appropriate time. This relates to the idea of prospective memory, or memory for the future, which involves planning for potential lapses. Blocking refers to a temporary inability to access a memory, which often results in a "tip of the tongue" experience. Oops, left the additional "n" off of Hermann Ebbinghaus on the screencast! Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s
Views: 605 PsychExamReview
Ethical Guidelines for Psychological Research (Intro Psych Tutorial #22)
 
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In this video I explain the major ethical guidelines for conducting research in psychology with human subjects including informed consent, freedom from coercion, protection from harm, risk-benefit analysis, anonymity and/or confidentiality, and debriefing. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/ethical-guidelines-for-psychological-research/
Views: 668 PsychExamReview
Vestibular Sense: Balance & Orientation (Intro Psych Tutorial #49)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I describe the parts of the vestibular system and how they use the movement of fluid to communicate information about balance, movement, and orientation. The vestibular sense also incorporates information from other sensory systems and this can be disrupted by spinning, or in less common situations, by a lack of gravity, both of which can cause nausea and dizziness. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Need more explanation? Check out my full psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s Vestibular System and Cochlea MRI: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cochlea_and_vestibular_system.gif Dizzy Sports with Paul Rudd: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cy0thWiV-eA For the grammarians, I realize I should have said "nauseated" rather than "nauseous". Oops! Enable closed-captioning or find a full transcript of this video here: http://www.psychexamreview.com/vestibular-sense-balance-orientation/
Views: 625 PsychExamReview
Biology of Memory: The Hippocampus (Intro Psych Tutorial #77)
 
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www.psychexamreview.com In this video I introduce the biology of memory and the role of the hippocampus on long-term memory formation. I discuss several cases of severe memory loss including patients H.M. and E.P., who suffered anterograde amnesia and cannot form new memories, and Clive Wearing, who also suffers from retrograde amnesia and is unable to recall his past. These case studies reveal the role of the hippocampus in explicit memory formation and also demonstrate that procedural memory does not rely on the the hippocampus. Don’t forget to subscribe to the channel to see future videos! Have questions or topics you’d like to see covered in a future video? Let me know by commenting or sending me an email! Check out my psychology guide: Master Introductory Psychology, a low-priced alternative to a traditional textbook: http://amzn.to/2eTqm5s E.P. Case Study (Scientific American Frontiers) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CL-0gfpf_6g Clive Wearing Documentary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_P7Y0-wgos&t=3s
Views: 610 PsychExamReview